Whitepaper Library

Through our many years of experience, starting in 1830, Kipp & Zonen has grown to be the market leader in solar irradiance measurements. We use our expertise to develop the most suitable products for our customers but also to share our knowledge with the world. In recent years we have developed a set of whitepapers on different subject in solar energy. On this page you will find an overview of all of them and you can click through to download each one and learn more.


Bifacial Photovoltaics on the Rise

A summary of the current state of the trends and research topics of the exponentially growing technology, bifacial PV. Accurate measurement of irradiance offers a few challenges when it comes to the back of modules. Read our guide to learn more.

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Solar Energy International Standards

For the solar energy industry a number of international standards have been defined. This whitepaper provides details on the major IEC and ISO standards that relate to performance monitoring of solar energy plants, the classification of pyranometers and pyrheliometers; and calibration. Download the whitepaper to find all information.

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Solar Module Soiling

DustIQ measures soiling of PV modules. But what is soiling exactly? How does it influence PV plant performance and loss of yield? We have captured the insights on soiling that we have gained during the development of DustIQ in a whitepaper. Read more about what soiling is, how it is distributed, the effect of different colors of soiling and how it affects PV cells, modules, arrays and strings. Click to go to the download page.

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Benefits of both pyranometer and satellite irradiance data 

The local irradiance is usually measured by a pyranometer and is very accurate and reliable. But some say that data derived from satellite measurements can also be used to make decisions when it comes to utility-scale solar energy. In practice, both satellite and on-site data are often used in parallel and correlated in plant monitoring software. In this whitepaper we explain the benefits of combining the two. Download the whitepaper to read more.

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6 Key Influences that Determine PV Performance Ratios

The performance ratio is a comparison of the final (actual) yield to the reference (design) yield, but that is not where the difficulty lies. There are many factors that influence the calculated outcome, from the components selected to the environmental conditions. We have published a whitepaper that sums up the 6 key influences on PR and how to deal with them. Download the whitepaper to read more on all 6 of them.

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The Benefits of Accurately Measuring Solar Irradiance

The sun produces a lot of energy that can be turned into electricity, either directly by photovoltaic modules or through thermal systems and steam turbine generators. Kipp & Zonen has summarized its expertise and combined it with customer feedback to provide you with an overview on solar irradiance and the benefits for the solar energy industry if you measure it. Download the free whitepaper to know exactly why accurate measurement of solar irradiance can make a difference in your solar project.

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